Vol 3-5 Commentary

Commentary: Integrative Analysis of Multiple Sclerosis Using a Systems Biology Approach

Karla Cervantes Gracia1, Holger Husi2,3*

1University of Monterrey, Health Sciences Division, Monterrey, 66238, Mexico

2Institute of Cardiovascular and Medical Sciences, BHF Glasgow Cardiovascular Research Centre, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, G12 8TA, UK

3Department of Diabetes and Cardiovascular Science, University of the Highlands and Islands, Centre for Health Science, Inverness, IV2 3JH, UK

View / Download Pdf View Full Text
Vol 3-5 Mini Review

Overview of Promising Rat Models for Cortical Lesion Research- 2006 Until Now

Michaela T. Haindl1, Muammer Ücal2, Franz Fazekas1, Sonja Hochmeister1*

1Department of Neurology, Medical University Graz, Auenbruggerplatz 22, 8036 Graz, Austria

2Research Unit of Experimental Neurotraumatology, Department of Neurosurgery, Medical University Graz, Auenbruggerplatz 29, 8036 Graz, Austria

Success in developing new drugs for diseases often depends on laboratory research usually involving animal models. For the early disease phases of multiple sclerosis (MS) this prerequisite was given by experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model which reflects the pathophysiological mechanisms of the disease quite well. Only a few models resemble cellular features of the progressive disease form of MS (like cortical demyelination) and if they do observable lesions are rather sparse and short lived. The lack of suitable animal models delayed and complicated drug development. Recently a few promising animal models reassembling many characteristics of progressive MS have been described aiming at both a better understanding of cellular mechanisms of this disease phase as well as the development of new therapeutic options. The authors of new rat models postulate novel findings of cortical pathology summarized in this article. The models differ in their focus and not all distinct models are reflecting all features of progressive MS but together they allow research on different aspects of the disease and offer the opportunity to expand our knowledge and clear the way for drug development.

View / Download Pdf View Full Text
Vol 3-5 Commentary

A Future Direction for Treatment of Alzheimer's Disease via the Oxidative Injury Theory

William K. Summers1*, Roy L. Martin1, Yimeng Liu2, Bernice Peña1, Gary M. Marsh2

1Alzheimer’s Corporation,6000 Uptown Blvd, Suite 308, Albuquerque, NM 87110, USA

2Department of Biostatistics, Graduate School of Public Health, University of Pittsburgh, University of Pittsburgh, A410 Crabtree Hall, 130 DeSoto St, Pittsburgh, PA 15261, USA

View / Download Pdf View Full Text
Vol 3-5 Commentary

Commentary: Octopamine Drives Endurance Exercise Adaptations in Drosophila

Kristin A Richardson1, Robert J Wessells1*

1Department of Physiology, Wayne State School of Medicine, Detroit, MI 48201, USA

View / Download Pdf View Full Text
Vol 3-5 Opinion Article

Epidemiology Informs Randomized Clinical Trials of Cognitive Impairments and Late-Onset, Sporadic Dementias

Deborah R. Gustafson1,2*

1Department of Neurology, State University of New York, Downstate Medical Center, New York, USA

2Department of Health and Education, University of Skövde, Sweden

View / Download Pdf View Full Text
Vol 3-5 Research Article

Human Immunoglobulin G (IgG) Neutralizes Adverse Effects of Gulf War Illness (GWI) Serum in Neural Cultures: Paving the Way to Immunotherapy for GWI

Effie-Photini C. Tsilibary1,2, Eric P. Souto1, Lisa M. James1,2, Brian E. Engdahl1,2, Apostolos P. Georgopoulos1,2*

1Brain Sciences Center, Department of Veterans Affairs Health Care System, Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA

2Department of Neuroscience, University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA

Gulf War Illness (GWI) is a chronic debilitating disease of unknown etiology that affects the brain and has afflicted many veterans of the 1990-91 Gulf War (GW). We showed recently1 that blood serum from patients suffering from GWI exerts detrimental effects on neural cultures, including reduced growth, increased apoptosis, and disruption of neural network function. Remarkably, these adverse effects were prevented by the concomitant addition to the culture of serum from healthy Gulf War (GW) era veterans. We interpreted those findings1 in the context of our hypothesis that GWI is, at least partly, due to circulating pathogenic persistent antigens2, probably coming from vaccines administered to GW veterans who lacked crucial Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) class 2 alleles3 and, therefore, could not make antibodies against those antigens; by contrast, healthy GW veterans who received the same vaccines and possessed HLA protection3 made antibodies that neutralized the various antigens. Thus, we hypothesized that the beneficial effect of the healthy serum on preventing the adverse GWI serum effects was due to the presence of antibodies against the persistent antigens. Here we tested this hypothesis by assessing the effect of pooled human immunoglobulin G (IgG) on ameliorating the GWI adverse effects on neural growth and apoptosis in neuroblastoma N2A cultures. We tested this effect in 14 GWI patients and found that IgG exerted a potent ameliorating effect by inhibiting the reduction in growth and increased apoptosis of GWI serum. These results lend support to our persistent antigen hypothesis1,2 and suggest an immunotherapy approach for treating GWI. This approach is further strengthened by our finding that the severity of GWI neurocognitive/mood (NCM) symptoms was positively correlated with the degree of apoptosis caused by GWI serum on the neural culture, thus validating the relevance of the apoptotic effect to NCM symptomatology. Finally, we used this relation to predict NCM scores based on the reduced apoptosis effected by IgG addition and found a predicted reduction in NCM symptom severity by ~60%. Altogether, these findings point to the possible beneficial use of IgG in treating GWI.

View / Download Pdf View Full Text
Vol 3-5 Mini Review

Phytochemicals, Antioxidants, and Cholinesterase Inhibitory Profiles of Elatostema Papillosum Leaves: An Alternative Approach for Management of Alzheimer's Disease

A. S. M. Ali Reza1, Mst. Samima Nasrin1, A. H. M. Khurshid Alam2*

1Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Science and Engineering, International Islamic University, Chittagong, Bangladesh

2Department of Pharmacy, University of Rajshahi, Bangladesh

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a devastating neurodegenerative disorder of the brain characterized by memory loss and, impaired judgment and language use. As AD incidence increases with age, AD has become a large socioeconomic burden that will only continue growing as populations age. Natural compounds that possess polyphenolic (phenolics and flavonoids) content and antioxidant property have the capacity to reduce the progression and symptoms of neurodegenerative diseases, including AD. In this mini-review, we emphasize the pathomechanisms of AD, including oxidative stress and modulatory roles of natural antioxidants in preventing AD. We discuss the antioxidant, phytochemical, and anticholinesterase properties of the plant Elatostema papillosum, which are relevant to the management of AD.

View / Download Pdf View Full Text