Vol 2-7 Mini Review

Peptoids: Emerging Therapeutics for Neurodegeneration

Lauren M. Wolf,1 Shannon L. Servoss,2 and Melissa A. Moss1,3,*

1Biomedical Engineering Program, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC, USA
2Ralph E. Martin Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR, USA
3Department of Chemical Engineering, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC, USA

In recent decades, the increasing prevalence of age-associated neurodegenerative diseases has underscored the need for targeted therapeutic strategies and novel diagnostics. Peptide-based neurotherapeutics offer high specificity and tolerability but are limited by proteolytic degradation in vivo. Peptoids, or N-substituted glycines, are versatile peptidomimetics that evade proteolytic degradation yet maintain many qualities that render peptides attractive neurotherapeutic candidates. These molecules may be engineered to their application through modifications that enhance structural stability and reactivity and can withstand various physiological stressors to retain their intended function within anomalous microenvironments.

Peptoids generally demonstrate greater cellular permeability than their corresponding peptides, are less immunogenic, and can be administered intranasally, all properties that enhance their potential as neurotherapeutics. Peptoids have primarily been explored as aggregation inhibitors to prevent the deleterious protein plaque deposition associated with several neurodegenerative disorders. However, novel research has uncovered the potential of peptoids toward additional neurotherapeutic applications. Peptoids can modulate cell signaling pathways involved in axonal function and current modulation and can block cell signaling events associated with apoptosis. In addition, these peptidomimetics are able to function as anti- inflammatory agents via multiple mechanisms. Moreover, the versatility and low cost of peptoids render them ideal instruments in biomarker detection, discovery, and imaging. This mini-review explores these diverse applications of peptoids within the context of neurodegenerative disease.

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Vol 2-7 Mini Review

New psychotherapeutic approaches in adult ADHD - acknowledging biographical factors

Caroline Lücke1*, Alexandra P. Lam1, Helge H. O. Muller1, Alexandra Philipsen1,2

1Medical Campus University of Oldenburg, School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Psychiatry and Psychotherapy – University Hospital, Karl-Jaspers-Klinik, Bad Zwischenahn, Germany
2Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Medical Faculty, University Medical Center – University of Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany

Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is the standard form of psychotherapy currently used in adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, biographical factors, such as chronic negative feedback in childhood, which may likely play a role in ADHD as a developmental disorder, are usually not substantially addressed by CBT. In recent years, schema therapy has received increasing attention as an effective therapy approach for chronic psychiatric disorders. A core feature of schema therapy is the identification and targeting of early maladaptive schemas, which are dysfunctional patterns and beliefs resulting from childhood experiences. Recently, two studies have demonstrated an increased prevalence of maladaptive schemas in adult ADHD. Thus, schema therapy might constitute a potentially promising approach in the treatment of ADHD, especially with regard to secondary problems such as poor coping strategies or impaired self-perception. However, randomized controlled clinical studies are needed to support that theory. Here, we provide an overview on the topic of biography-oriented therapy approaches in relation to adult ADHD, summarize current literature and discuss implications for future research.

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