Vol 2-6 Mini Review

Identifying Peripheral Neuropathy in Fall Patients with the Heat-Washout Method

Le Gjerum & Mette Midttun*

Department of Internal Medicine, Geriatric section, Copenhagen University Hospital, Herlev, Denmark

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Vol 2-6 Commentary

Commentary: Mycoplasma pneumoniae-associated mild encephalitis/encephalopathy with a reversible splenial lesion: Report of two pediatric cases and a comprehensive literature review

Norishi Ueda

Department of Pediatrics, Public Central Hospital of Matto Ishikawa, 3-8 Kuramitsu, Hakusan, 924-8588 Ishikawa, Japan

We previously reviewed clinical characteristics of all reported pediatric cases of Mycoplasma pneumonia (M.pneumoniae)-associated mild encephalitis/encephalopathy with a reversible splenial lesion (MERS). It dominantly occurs in Asian and Caucasian children, suggesting age/race as predisposing factors of MERS. Fever is the most common non-neurological symptom, while more than half of the cases have no respiratory symptoms. Thus, M.pneuminiae-associated MERS may be underestimated and should be a differential diagnosis of febrile children with neurological abnormalities. The mechanism of the disease is unknown. However, susceptibility of immature corpus callosum in young children to immune response-mediated neuroinflammattory stimuli induced by M.pneuminiae, including interleukin-6, reactive oxygen species and toll-like receptors, rather than direct invasion of the organism in central nervous system may contribute to the pathogenesis of MERS. A role of autoantibodies awaits further investigations. Despite excellent prognosis in type I MERS, it remains elusive whether type II MERS is highly associated with neurological sequel.

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Vol 2-6 Commentary

Commentary: Target Intestinal Microbiota to Alleviate Disease Progression in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

Jun Sun

Department of Medicine, University of Illinois at Chicago 840 S Wood Street, Room 704 CSB, MC716, USA

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Vol 2-6 Research Article

Clinical efficacy of ozagrel with or without edaravone in 156 acute stroke patients

Shun Aritake, Hiroaki Oguro*, Kenichi Iwasa, Shingo Mitaki, Hiroyuki Takayoshi, Satoshi Abe, Keiichi Onoda, Shuhei Yamaguchi

Department of Neurology, Shimane University Hospital, 89-1 Enya-cho, Izumo city, Shimane 693-8501, Japan

We studied prognosis in 156 acute stoke patients treated by ozagrel and edaravone with the Japanese Standard Stroke Registry database in our hospital. They were examined as to their stroke types, neurological severity according to the NIH Stroke Scale (NIHSS) and clinical outcomes at admission by the modified Rankin Scale (mRS).  Acute noncardioembolic stroke patients with lacunar and atherothrombosis showed functional recovery by both of ozagrel monotherapy and the combination therapy of ozagrel and edaravone. Although ozagrel monotherapy in atherothrombotic infarction showed most improved by 2.4 points, we did not find significant difference among four groups according to ozagrel monotherapy or the combination therapy in atherothrombotic or lacunar infarct after adjusted for age. 

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Vol 2-6 Commentary

Commentary: Is ADEM a subgroup of MS?

Shinji Ohara

Department of Neurology, Matsumoto Medical Center, Chushin-Matsumoto Hospital, 811 Kotobuki, Matsumoto, 399-0021 Japan

Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) and Multiple sclerosis (MS) are both immunologically mediated inflammatory demyelinating disease of the CNS. ADEM and MS have long been considered as a separate disease entities, but clinical differentiation of ADEM from the first attack of MS is often difficult because of overlapping clinical features. Pathologically, perivenous demyelination and discrete confluent demyelination (plaque) have been generally regarded as the hallmark of ADEM and MS, respectively. It is also known that in contrast to MS, which shows quite diverse heterogeneous pathologic patterns, ADEM shows generally homogenous pathological features of inflammatory demyelination. However, hybrid cases showing pathological features of both ADEM and MS do exist, suggesting that ADEM may share some common underlying pathologic mechanisms with certain stages or subgroups of MS.

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Vol 2-6 Mini Review

Human Gastrokine 1 and its anti-amyloidogenic properties

Chiara Stella Di Stadio1, Filomena Altieri1, Giuseppina Minopoli1, Giuseppina Miselli1, Emilia Rippa1*, Paolo Arcari1,2*

1Department of Molecular Medicine and Medical Biotechnology, University of Naples Federico II, Naples, Italy
2CEINGE, Advanced Biotechnology scarl, Via Gaetano Salvatore 486, I-80145, Naples, Italy

Gastrokine 1 (GKN1) is a 18 kDa stomach protein highly expressed in normal gastric tissue but absent in gastric cancer. GKN1 plays its major role in maintaining gastric mucosal integrity. Because of the presence in its central region of a BRICHOS domain, GKN1 is characterized by multifunctional properties since it interacts and regulates the activity of several proteins. The BRICHOS domain consists of about 100 amino acids and has been found in protein families often associated with major human diseases like familial British and Danish dementia (BRI2) or respiratory distress syndrome (surfactant protein C) (SP-C), both associated with amyloid formation. It has been shown that BRICHOS is a chaperon domain that has the property of binding precursor protein regions with high β-sheet tendencies, thereby preventing them from amyloid formation. Like the BRICHOS domains from BRI2 and SP-C precursor (proSP-C), also GKN1 is able to prevent fibrils formation of amyloid-beta peptide (Aβ) and to interact with the C-terminal region of APP thus hindering the γ-secretase proteolytic sites. Indeed, amyloid is of great medical importance since it originates in several major fatal diseases such as Alzheimer, Parkinson and diabetes mellitus. The results collected until now on the BRICHOS properties of GKN1 and those from other BRICHOS suggest that the different amyloids recognized by BRICHOS should contain similar structural elements therefore, the BRICHOS domain represents a potential powerfull tool for therapeutic approaches against amyloid associated diseases.

Abbreviations: AD, Alzheimer disease; Aβ, amyloid-beta peptide; APP, amyloid precursor protein; CTFs, APP C-Terminal Fragments; GC, gastric cancer; DAPT, N-[N-(3,5-Difluorophenacetyl)-L-alanyl]-S-phenylglycine t-butyl ester; DMSO, dimethyl sulfoxyde; GC, gastric cancer; GKN1, gastrokine 1; flGKN1, full-lenght GKN1; MS, mass spectrometry; rGKN1, recombinant GKN1; SPR, surface plasma resonance; TM, transmembrane; TMpred, transmembrane prediction.

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