Vol 3-1 Commentary

CTR MEETS REALITY

Khan MI1*

1Orthopedic & Hand surgery, Beverly Hills, CA, USA

DOI: 10.29245/2572.942X/2017/1.1165 View / Download Pdf View Full Text
Vol 3-1 Mini Review

Acute laryngeal dystonia: drug-induced respiratory failure related to antipsychotic medications

Nathan Collins MD, Jeffrey Sager MD

Santa Barbara Cottage Hospital Department of Internal Medicine Santa Barbara, CA, USA

Acute laryngeal dystonia (ALD) is a drug-induced dystonic reaction that can lead to acute respiratory failure and is potentially life-threatening if unrecognized. It was first reported in 1978 when two individuals were noticed to develop difficulty breathing after administration of haloperidol. Multiple cases have since been reported with the use of first generation antipsychotics (FGAs) and more recently second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs). Acute dystonic reactions (ADRs) have an occurrence rate of 3%-10%, but may occur more frequently with high potency antipsychotics. Younger age and male sex appear to be the most common risk factors, although a variety of metabolic abnormalities and illnesses have also been associated with ALD as well. The diagnosis of ALD can go unrecognized as other causes of acute respiratory failure are often explored prior to ALD. The exact mechanism for ALD remains unclear, yet evidence has shown a strong correlation with extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS) and dopamine receptor blockade. Recognition and appropriate management of ALD can prevent significant morbidity and mortality.

DOI: 10.29245/2572.942X/2017/1.1167 View / Download Pdf View Full Text
Vol 3-1 Mini Review

Sirtuins and Neurodegeneration

Gizem Yalcin

Department of Medical Biology, Faculty of Medicine, Adnan Menderes University, Aydin, Turkey

Sirtuins are highly conserved NAD+-dependent enzymes connected to an increasing set of biological processes. These enzymes have attracted major interest because of their roles in age-related diseases. Sirtuins are implicated in various biological pathways related to stress response, mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress, protein aggregation and inflammatory processes that are intertwined with age-related neurodegenerative diseases.

DOI: 10.29245/2572.942X/2017/1.1168 View / Download Pdf View Full Text
Vol 3-1 Commentary

Commentary: miR-132/212 Modulates Seasonal Adaptation and Dendritic Morphology of the Central Circadian Clock

Lucia Mendoza-Viveros1,2, Karl Obrietan3, Hai-Ying M. Cheng1,2*

1Department of Biology, University of Toronto Mississauga, Mississauga, ON, L5L 1C6, Canada

2Department of Cell and Systems Biology, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, M5S 3G3, Canada

3Department of Neuroscience, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, 43210, USA


Daily rhythms in behavior and physiology are coordinated by an endogenous clock located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus. This central pacemaker also relays day length information to allow for seasonal adaptation, a process for which melatonin signaling is essential. How the SCN encodes day length is not fully understood. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression by directing target mRNAs for degradation or translational repression. The miR-132/212 cluster plays a key role in facilitating neuronal plasticity, and miR-132 has been shown previously to modulate resetting of the central clock. A recent study from our group showed that miR-132/212 in mice is required for optimal adaptation to seasons and non-24-hour light/dark cycles through regulation of its target gene, methyl CpG-binding protein (MeCP2), in the SCN and dendritic spine density of SCN neurons. Furthermore, in the seasonal rodent Mesocricetus auratus (Syrian hamster), adaptation to short photoperiods is accompanied by structural plasticity in the SCN independently of melatonin signaling, thus further supporting a key role for SCN structural and, in turn, functional plasticity in the coding of day length. In this commentary, we discuss our recent findings in context of what is known about day length encoding by the SCN, and propose future directions.

DOI: 10.29245/2572.942X/2017/1.1169 View / Download Pdf View Full Text
Vol 3-1 Commentary

Commentary: How Does Oestradiol Influence the AVT/IT System in Female Round Gobies During Different Reproductive Phases?

Hanna Kalamarz-Kubiak

Department of Genetics and Marine Biotechnology, Institute of Oceanology, Polish Academy of Sciences, Sopot, Poland

DOI: 10.29245/2572.942X/2017/1.1172 View / Download Pdf View Full Text