Vol 5-1 Research Article

Tri-Allelic Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) Protection Against Dementia

Lisa M. James1,2,3, Apostolos P. Georgopoulos1,2,3,4*

1Brain Sciences Center, Department of Veterans Affairs Health Care System, Minneapolis, USA

2Department of Neuroscience, University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis, USA

3Department of Psychiatry, University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis, USA

4Center for Cognitive Sciences, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, USA

5Department of Neurology, University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis, USA

Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) Class II DRB1*13:02 has recently been found to protect against dementia in Continental Western Europe. Here we extend those findings by evaluating the association between the population frequency of two additional Class II HLA alleles – DRB1*01:01 and DRB1*15:01 – alone and in combination with DRB1*13:02, on dementia prevalence in Continental Western Europe. Results indicated that the prevalence of dementia in 14 Continental Western European (CWE) countries significantly decreased exponentially with increasing frequency of any of the three alleles alone and in combination (P’s < 0.001). When combined, the population frequency of the three alleles accounted for 67% of the variance in dementia prevalence. The combined frequency of DRB1*01:01, DRB1*13:02, and DRB1*15:01 was also significantly associated with dementia prevalence in those aged 65 years and older (P = 0.004) and with a change in dementia prevalence between 1990 and 2016 (P = 0.006). These findings, which document the protective effects of three common Class II HLA alleles on dementia prevalence in CWE, are discussed in terms of the role of HLA class II genes in pathogen elimination. More specifically, we hypothesize that dementia prevalence is higher for countries in which the population frequency of these protective alleles is low, prohibiting the successful elimination of pathogens that may play a causal role in dementia.

DOI: 10.29245/2572.942X/2019/1.1261 View / Download Pdf
Vol 5-1 Case Report

Acute Fatal Stroke Associated with Honeybee Sting

Ashutosh Gupta

Consultant Neurologist, Department of Neurology, Shree Aggarsain International Hospital, Rohini, Delhi, India

The venom toxins of honeybee cause anaphylactic allergic reactions and/or any type of stroke. Hemorrhagic strokes are more severe than the ischemic strokes. Diverse pathophysiological mechanisms have been postulated for occurrence of these strokes. We discuss here mechanism of acute fatal hemorrhagic and ischemic stroke in a middle age woman, stung by the honeybee on her right arm and who clinically manifested loss of consciousness and tonic clonic seizure, within 3-4 hours followed by hemiparesis. The MRI revealed brain lesions of multiple infarctions with hemorrhagic transformation, subdural (SDH) and subarachnoid (SAH) hemorrhages. This appears to be the first report, wherein a patient had entire spectrum of stroke (infarcts, subarachnoid and subdural hemorrhages), after a single inciting event of bee sting.

DOI: 10.29245/2572.942X/2019/1.1262 View / Download Pdf
Vol 5-1 Review Article

The Triple Functional Domain Protein Trio with Multiple Functions in the Nervous System

Tao Tao*, Jie Sun, Min-Sheng Zhu

Model Animal Research Center, State Key Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology and Department of Neurology of the Affiliated Nanjing Drum Tower Hospital of Nanjing University Medical School, Nanjing University, China

DOI: 10.29245/2572.942X/2019/1.1263 View / Download Pdf
Vol 5-1 Research Article

Dementias Caused by Persistent Pathogens and the Protective Role of HLA Against them

Lisa M. James1,2,3, Apostolos P. Georgopoulos1,2,3,4*

1Brain Sciences Center, Department of Veterans Affairs Health Care System, Minneapolis, USA

2Department of Neuroscience, University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis, USA

3Department of Psychiatry, University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis, USA

4Department of Neurology, University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis, USA

Dementia is a leading cause of death worldwide, representing a significant global burden. In addition to genetic and lifestyle factors that have been widely linked to dementia, pathogens are increasingly recognized as contributing to the development of dementia. Here we discuss the role of human leukocyte antigens (HLA) in maintaining brain health by facilitating the elimination of pathogens and highlight evidence suggesting that the inability to eliminate pathogens contributes to dementia. Finally, we briefly review common forms of dementia including Alzheimer’s disease, vascular dementia, frontotemporal dementia, Lewy body dementia, and prion dementia in an effort to contextualize the role of persistent pathogens across the various dementia phenotypes.

DOI: 10.29245/2572.942X/2019/1.1260 View / Download Pdf
Vol 5-1 Case Report

Pseudoathetosis as an Early Manifestation in a Patient with Multiple Sclerosis (Ms)

Isabelle Pastor Bandeira1*, Washigton Luiz Gomes de Medeiros Junior1, André Eduardo de Almeida Franzoi1, Laura Fiuza Parolin2, Paulo Roberto Wille3, Marcus Vinícius Magno Gonçalves4

1Department of Medicine, University of the Region of Joinville (UNIVILLE), Brazil

2University of the Region of Joinville (UNIVILLE), Brazil

3University of the Region of Joinville (UNIVILLE), Brazil

4University of the Region of Joinville (UNIVILLE), Brazil

Pseudoathetosis is a movement disorder caused by loss of proprioception. The disorder is characterized by involuntary, slow, and writhing movements. Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS). The disease is characterized by multiple lesions of the brain and spinal cord. These lesions are disseminated in time and space. The onset of the neuroinflammation is characterized by episodes of neurological dysfunction that usually recover. Reports of MS with pseudoathetosis are extremely rare. The association of these two disorders is uncommon. This article shows a 29-year-old woman who presented pseudoathetosis as the initial symptom of MS. Therefore, this case report is very relevant for medical knowledge due to the rare form presentation of MS.

DOI: 10.29245/2572.942X/2020/1.1258 View / Download Pdf
Vol 5-1 Mini Review

The Effect of the Trpv1 Agonist, Capsaicin, on the Developing Rat Brain: A Mini Review

Loris A Chahl

School of Biomedical Sciences and Pharmacy University of Newcastle NSW 2308 Australia

It has been shown previously that rats treated as neonates with capsaicin exhibited hyperactivity in a novel environment and had brain changes, including reduced brain weight, reduced hippocampal area, reduced cortical thickness and increased neuronal density in several cortical areas. These brain changes resembled those found in subjects with schizophrenia. This mini review discusses recent findings on the effects of capsaicin on hippocampal neurons and the role of TRPV1 channels in the central nervous system, which provide a possible explanation for the effects of capsaicin on the developing rat brain. Future studies on the role of TRPV1 channels in the brain hold great promise for further understanding of neuropsychiatric disorders.

DOI: 10.29245/2572.942X/2020/1.1264 View / Download Pdf
Vol 5-1 Case Report

Distinct Pattern of Neuro radiological Manifestation in Posterior Reversible Encephalopathy Syndrome

Mohamed ElSayed Abdelhady1*, Nida Fatima2*, Yaman Al Kailani1, Ahmed Own1, Surjith Vattoth1

1Department of Neuro radiology, Hamad General Hospital, Doha, Qatar

2Department of Neurosurgery, Hamad General Hospital, Doha, Qatar

DOI: 10.29245/2572.942X/2020/1.1259 View / Download Pdf
Vol 5-1 Review Article

Neuroradiology and Its Role in Neurodegenerative Diseases

Alain L. Fymat*

International Institute of Medicine & Science, California, U.S.A

A variety of radiological imaging techniques are used singly or in combination to diagnose and treat neurodegenerative diseases. Their respective roles are reviewed and discussed within the contexts of Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. In Alzheimer's, MRI and PET scans are usually employed to rule out confounding symptoms from other disorders/diseases and to assess the extent of brain atrophy as the disease progresses. In Parkinson's, CT and MRI are not very informative but can rule out secondary causes of Parkinsonism; 3T-MRI is still under evaluation notwithstanding its high sensitivity and specificity; and PET and SPECT can rule out drug-induced Parkinsonism but are not reliable in distinguishing Parkinson's from other neurodegenerative causes of Parkinsonism. Functional SPECT/ DaTscan is indicated for detecting loss of functional dopaminergic neuron terminals in the striatum of patients with clinically uncertain Parkinsonian syndromes in order to help differentiate essential tremor, multiple system atrophy, and progressive supranuclear palsy from Parkinson's but is unable to discriminate between them. However, DaTscan can help differentiate dementia with Lewy bodies from other forms of dementia. Because of its importance in Parkinson's, the complementary technology of magnetic resonance-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound is also reviewed and compared to electromagnetic brain stimulation and radiosurgery.

AAD: Alzheimer's Disease; ALS: Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis; APP: Amyloid Precursor Protein; CNS: Central Nervous System; CT: Computed Tomography; DBS: Deep-Brain Stimulation; EMBS: Electromagnetic Brain Stimulation; ET: Essential Tremor; fGCA: Frontal Cortical Atrophy; fMRI: functional MRI; HD: Huntington's Disease; HIFUS: High-Intensity Focused Ultra-Sound; MRI: Magnetic Resonance Imaging; MRT:Magnetic Resonance Thermometry; MSA: Multiple System Atrophy; MTA: Medial Temporal lobe Atrophy; NDD: Neurodegenerative Disorder; PA: Posterior Atrophy; PD: Parkinson's Disease; PET: Positron Emission Tomography; PS: Parkinson's Syndrome; PSP: Progressive Supranuclear Palsy; RS: Radiosurgery; SPECT: Single Photon Computed Tomography; US: Ultrasound; VIN: Ventral Intermediate Nucleus.

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