Vol 7-1 Review Article

Exploring the Therapeutic Potential of the Ketogenic Diet on Neurological Disorders: A Comprehensive Review

Sai Krishna Vallamchetla

All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Bhopal, India

The ketogenic diet (KD) has emerged as a promising therapeutic strategy for a variety of neurological disorders, including epilepsy, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, and autism spectrum disorder. The potential benefits of the KD are attributed to its capacity to modulate neurotransmission, reduce inflammation, improve mitochondrial function, and enhance synaptic plasticity. Despite the growing body of evidence supporting the KD's therapeutic potential, there remain challenges in its implementation, such as potential side effects, nutrient deficiencies, and the need for careful monitoring by healthcare professionals. Factors affecting the success of the KD include patient adherence, individual metabolic response, and appropriate diet customization. This review summarizes the current evidence supporting the KD's role in the management of neurological disorders, discusses the underlying mechanisms of action, highlights the challenges and considerations associated with its use, and addresses the factors that can influence treatment success. Further research is needed to optimize the KD for different patient populations, elucidate the specific therapeutic mechanisms, and identify potential biomarkers to predict treatment response, ultimately enhancing the quality of life and overall well-being of individuals affected by neurological disorders.

DOI: 10.29245/2572.942X/2023/1.1286 View / Download Pdf
Vol 6-2 Original Research Article

Utilising Polygenic Risk Score Analysis for AD to Determine the “Sphere of Influence” of the APOE Isoform SNPs

Connor Farrell, Keeley J Brookes*

Biosciences, Nottingham Trent University, Clifton Campus, Nottingham, NG8 11NS, UK

The APOE gene and particularly the ε4 allele have been a long-established risk factor for Alzheimer’s disease (AD), demonstrating the largest genetic effect size in this complex disease. In light of the odds ratios observed for the risk allele, many studies disregard neighbouring association signals as merely “tagging” this effect. Polygenic risk score (PRS) analyses in this field regularly use low linkage disequilibrium parameters (r2≥0.1) when selecting SNPs for analysis across the genome and remove kilobases of data surrounding the APOE locus, preventing confounding factors influencing their results. This study investigated a 500kb region surrounding the APOE locus, utilising PRS analysis to explore whether additional SNPs in this region could be providing contributory effects to AD predictability. The data presented here suggest that the “sphere of influence” of the APOE isoform SNPs covers a region of around 92kb; SNPs in Linkage Disequilibrium (LD) at r2<0.4 with rs429358 potentially contribute independently to the PRS predictability for AD, and that there are additional independent SNPs in this region that have increased effects in an APOE ε4 negative sample. This study concludes that further consideration is required when selecting LD parameters for PRS analysis and that additional investigation into the region surrounding APOE may yield polymorphisms that may play a pivotal role in the development of AD.

DOI: 10.29245/2572.942X/2022/2.1284 View / Download Pdf