Vol 5-2 Mini Review

RIP140 in Stress Response of the Brain

Yu-Lung Lin1, Yi-Wei Li1, Li-Na Wei1*

Department of Pharmacology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, USA

Receptor interacting protein 140 (RIP140), gene named Nuclear receptor interacting protein 1 (Nrip1), is a transcription co-regulator of numerous nuclear receptors and transcription factors that are important for various biological processes. RIP140 is highly expressed in various cell types of the brain, especially cortex and hippocampus. Increasingly, studies have begun to reveal its multiple functional roles in maintaining brain health. In particularly, there appears to be an intimate relationship between RIP140 and neurodegenerative diseases, such as reduced RIP140 expression in Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) postmortem brain and impaired cognitive functions in RIP140 knockout mice. The different functional roles of RIP140, mediated by distinct mechanisms, coordinately contribute to the execution of stress response of the brain to Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) stress, heat shock (HS) stress, oxidative stress and psychological/behavioral stress. In this review, we describe the roles of RIP140 in three brain cell types (neurons, microglia, and astrocytes) stressed by pharmacological agents or behavioral manipulation. These results demonstrate physiological integration of various functional roles of RIP140 in different brain cells to facilitate survival and recovery from stress. The results also suggest a potential, preventive and/or therapeutic strategy by targeting RIP140 in managing neurodegenerative diseases.

DOI: 10.29245/2572.942X/2020/2.1265 View / Download Pdf
Vol 5-2 Editorial

Etymology of the Medical Terminology of Opsoclonus Myoclonus

Steven Yale1*, Halil Tekiner2, Eileen S Yale3

1University of Central Florida College of Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Orlando, USA

2Department of the History of Medicine and Ethics, Erciyes University School of Medicine, Melikgazi, Kayseri, Turkey

3University of Florida, Division of General Internal Medicine, Gainesville, USA

DOI: 10.29245/2572.942X/2020/2.1266 View / Download Pdf
Vol 5-3 Mini Review

Microtubule Electrical Oscillations and Hippocampal Function

Maria del Rocio Cantero, Horacio F. Cantiello

Laboratorio de Canales Iónicos, Instituto Multidisciplinario de Salud, Tecnología y Desarrollo (IMSaTeD, CONICET-UNSE) Santiago del Estero, Argentina

Microtubules (MTs) are long cylindrical structures of the cytoskeleton that control cell division, vesicular transport, and the shape of cells. MTs are highly charged and behave as nonlinear electrical transmission lines. However, comparatively little is known about the role(s) these nonlinear electrical properties of MTs play in cell function. MTs form bundles, which are particularly prominent in neurons, where they help developmentally define axons and dendrites. The present review summarizes recent work from our laboratory which demonstrated that 1) bundles of rat brain MTs spontaneously generate electrical oscillations and bursts of electrical activity similar to action potentials; 2) actin filaments control electrostatically the oscillatory response of brain MTs; and 3) neurites of cultured mouse hippocampal neurons generate and propagate electrical oscillations thus, providing a cellular correlate to the isolated MT oscillations. Electrical oscillations are an intrinsic property of brain MT bundles, which may have important implications in the control of various neuronal functions, including a contribution to the intrinsic oscillatory modes of neurons, and thus to higher brain functions, including the formation of memory and the onset of consciousness.

DOI: 10.29245/2572.942X/2020/3.1267 View / Download Pdf